Hanover (capital Lucea), is a parish located on the northwestern tip of the island of Jamaica. It is a part of the county of Cornwall, bordered by St. James in the east, and Westmoreland in the south. With the exception of Kingston, it is the smallest parish on the island. Hanover is the birth parish of The Right Excellent Sir Alexander Bustamante, one of Jamaica’s seven National Heroes, a labour leader and first head of government after universal suffrage.
Hanover was established on November 12, 1723, and named for the British monarch, George I, from the German House of Hanover. In the early colonial days, Lucea, the main town and port, was even busier than Montego Bay. By the mid-18th century, Lucea was the hub of an important sugar-growing region, and the town was prosperous as a sugar port and market centre. European Jews settled in the parish as merchants, store keepers, haberdashery, shoe makers and goldsmiths. It became a free port.
After abolition of slavery in 1834, the free people prospered, developing a variety of crops, and supplying produce to much of the rest of Jamaica. The harbour was used to export bananas until after the 1960s. A deep-water pier was built, but this has been restricted to the shipping of molasses, an important sugar product. In 1983, the port was closed. The historic Fort Charlotte stands at one side of the entrance to the harbour, but was never garrisoned.